(Case 10, nos. 245-281)

Engravers took some pains to represent accurately the products they were commissioned to depict on trade cards. Products began to appear on trade cards as replacements for (or additions to) trade signs towards the end of the 18th century. Depictions of scientific instruments are of great interest to researchers, sometimes showing instruments of which there are no surviving examples.

The trade cards of John Cuff and G. Richardson and the catalogue of John Bidstrup all provide detailed information about the making and pricing of spectacles and other optical instruments. In 1793 the price of spectacles ranged from 1s. to £15.15.0. John Sibbald, too, sold spectacles and they were also hawked by London street sellers see no. 104f).

Trade cards also give the tradesman’s terms, most making the point that discounts were given where the products are to be sold on, for example by merchants, captains, country dealers, exporters, shopkeepers and schoolmasters.


This section focuses on combinations of trades, beginning with the work of undertakers. Undertaking was often a sub-trade of appraisers, trunk makers or furniture makers. Of 1,025 undertakers from 1839 to1842, for example, only 275 were solely undertakers.

Combinations of Trades

Case 10 Supplementary Images

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